Aufruf “Calling up” of the groom to read the Torah Occurs during Shabbat 1 week before the wedding In progressive Judaism, both the bride and groom read from the Torah Mikveh Orthodox Jewish women visit the Mikveh pool Form of ritual purification before marriage Occurs one week before the wedding Badeken “Veiling of the bride” First time the ChatanGroom and KallahBride see each other on the wedding day Chuppah Chatan and Kallah approach the ChuppahA canopy supported by 4 poles or attendants with their parents after signing the KetubahJewish marriage contract Remainder of the ceremony occurs under the Chuppah Circling of the Groom Kallah circles the chatan 7 times Symbolises the breaking down of walls between the couple Birkat Erusin Initial blessings are said over wine Performed by rabbi or family member After the blessings, the Chatan and Kallah drink from the wine Ring The chatan places a ring on the finger of the kallah Chatan says: “Behold you are sanctified (betrothed) to me with this ring, according to the Law of Moses and Israel.
Table of Contents What is it? Purpose Audience: Contents Quotes Impact Moses Maimonides Series What is it? Codification of Jewish Law Grouping/re-organising of the Mitvot by category Purpose To make Jewish law more accessible Language: Hebrew Audience: Rabbis Scholars Talmudists Jewish leaders Contents Not written for everyday Jews: designed for religious leaders to easily disseminate information to the wider community Seen as innovative because it did not follow the order of the TaNaKh Categorised in order to make it relevant and applicable for intended audience For example, the Sefer Nashim (Book of Women) contains moral laws about marriage, divorce and family law 14 Volumes (books) IMPACT: By improving access to and understanding of the Mitzvot, Jews were more able to apply the Mitzvot Quotes "
Table of Contents What is it? Context Purpose Audience Contents Quotes Impact Moses Maimonides Series What is it? A comprehensive commentary on each discussion in the Mishnah Summarises Talmudic discussions Context Necessary for Jews to understand the Mishnah in an Islam-dominated world, and to understand Halachah and the Mishnah Purpose To assist Diaspora Jews in understanding the Written law of Judaism Language: Arabic Audience Diaspora Jews and everyday Adherents Contents Maimonides believed that it was necessary for everyday Jewish adherents to understand the Mishnah in order to understand the Halachah Written in Arabic to assist Jews living in an Islamic-dominated world Summarised the Talmudic discussions Clarified the final Halachic decisions within the Mishnah Structured as a TL;DR, followed by a lengthier explanation EFFECT: Allowed for a more practical application of Jewish Law Quotes "
Table of Contents Context Background Historical, Religious and Social Context Moses Maimonides Series Context Background Born in 1136 Sephardi Jew (Jew from Spain) Father was a Judge and was well-versed in the Torah Maimonides was taught the Jewish religion, as well as science and secular philosophy, by his father These areas of study dominated his life Historical, Religious and Social Context Exiled from Spain in 1148 to Fustat, Egypt (near Cairo) Brother traded precious stones after his father’s passing Brother was lost at sea, along with a large portion of the family fortune Appointed Chief Rabbi of Egypt in around 1171 Appointed as the Royal Physician at the Court of the Sultan in 1183 Responsible for the health of Grand Vizier Alfadel, as well as other members of the royal family Passed away in 1204 at the age of 69 Laid to rest in Tiberias, North Israel Moses Maimonides Series Commentary on the Mishnah (1168) Mishneh Torah (1170-1180) Guide for the Perplexed (1190)
Contemporary Aboriginal Spirituality Aboriginal Spirituality as Determined by the Dreaming Discuss how Aboriginal spirituality is determined by the Dreaming
The Dreaming – underpins all aspects of Aboriginal spirituality and traditional life Kinship – fabric of traditional Aboriginal society – everyone is related through the complex web of the Dreaming Totems: Tribes are made up of clans, each descended from a spirit ancestor Totem – a natural part of the region the clan originated from Represents the ongoing life force of the Dreaming – are used at ceremonies Unifies the clan under the spirit ancestor and creates a metaphysical connection with other clans bearing the same totem Transcendent bond between humans and their totem as well as a Dreaming kinship with other individuals bearing the same totem Spirit ancestors: Expect the members of these kinship groups to fulfil certain obligations Required to obey tribal laws and beliefs and to subordinate individual interests to the greater good of the community Reciprocal network of giving and receiving of right and obligations Expect the knowledge will be passed down through the tribe Require the kinship group to act as custodians of designated territory and totems Ceremonial life
Separation from the Land For Aboriginal people, loss of Land is the same as loss of spiritual identity Results in inability to fulfill ritual responsibilities, and a loss of purpose Land is inextricably connected to kinship, ceremonial life, family connections and relationships Loss of land resulted in the destruction of totemic responsibilities Order of events 1788: settlement and establishment of Terra Nullius, marked the start of the removal of tribes from the Land 1820s-1850s: government and churches established missions and reserves Imposed Chrisitianity and European culture/lifestyle Objected to most aspects of Aboriginal spirituality Separation from Kinship Groups Destroyed kinship and the identity of Aboriginal communities Wiped out thousands of years of stories and culture, which is irretrievable without those kinship ties Order of events 1838: Policy of Protection forcibly placed Aboriginal people on missions and reserves, which resulted in the mass dispossession of Aboriginal people Deliberate attempt to destroy Aboriginal spirituality Resulted in the destruction of kinship, traditional gender roles, culture, language, etc.
The Dreaming is a fundamental concept that underpins all aspects of Aboriginal spirituality The Dreaming refers to Aboriginal spiritual beliefs about creation and existence According to Aboriginal spirituality, all life is part of a larger network that can be traced back to the ANCESTOR BEINGS of the Dreaming The Dreaming involves all knowledge and understanding in Aboriginal societies The Dreaming incorporates an explanation for the origins of the Universe The Dreaming is INEXTRICABLY CONNECTED TO THE LAND as the Land is the physical medium through which the Dreaming is expressed, and since the Ancestor Spirits are said to continue to reside within the Land The Dreaming is METATEMPORAL, meaning it incorporates the past, present and future as a complete and present reality The Dreaming is embedded in all aspects of Aboriginal life, because every part of Aboriginal life is derived from the Dreaming Kinship Kinship identify a system of belonging and responsibilities within a clan Kinship is not only based on family, but also one’s totem, usually a plant or an animal, which represent a person’s or group’s connection with the Ancestor Spirits Kinship ties govern all interactions with other people (such as who you can marry, who you can talk to, etc.
MODULE 1 – The Nature of Religion and Belief Systems
Overview Students learn about religion as a worldview that acknowledges the supernatural dimension and has a belief in a divine being or powers beyond the human and/or dwelling within the individual Key Questions: What is a worldview?
Divinity and Humanity of Jesus Christ Divine: of or pertaining to God Jesus is 100% divine, God incarnate (made flesh) Human: of of pertaining to the nature of people Jesus is 100% Human Jesus being both 100% divine and 100% human is known as “Hypostatic Union” Jesus is the Word of God made flesh (John 1:1, John 1:14) His divinity is evident through the Gospel testimonies of the miracles and healings performed by Jesus His humanity is evident through his life as a carpenter and his suffering on the Cross Council of Nicaea - 325CE Early Christian thinkers argued over Jesus’ dual nature, and found it difficult to explain how and why God ‘was a man’.
Books of the Bible The Bible can be broken down into 2 parts: Old Testament: Hebrew Bible consisting of the 24 books of the TaNaKh (can be divided into Torah, Nevi’im and Ketuvim) Also contains the Apocrypha/Deuterocanon, which are disputed books (Catholics and Orthodox recognise these books as part of the Bible, Protestants do not) New Testament: 27 books about the life and actions of Jesus, consists of 4 Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, John), followed by the Acts of the Apostles, then the 21 Epistles (Letters) and the Book of Revelation.