SOR HSC Consolidation
Consolidation of all Studies of Religion HSC content.
Table of Contents
Some of the sections in this article have more in-depth posts. If you want a better understanding of the content, click the little number next to the section.
This only has SOR1 content right now. If someone is willing to add SOR2 notes, that would be great.
Also, if you’re on a newer syllabus than 2009, some of this might no longer be relevant.
1. Contemporary Aboriginal Spiritualities 1
1.1. Discuss how Aboriginal Spirituality is determined by the Dreaming
- The Dreaming is the spiritual aspect of Aboriginal beliefs, encapsulating both the physical and spiritual dimensions
- Kinship is a highly sophisticated network of relationships within Aboriginal cultures
- Designates roles and responsibilites within tribes
- Creates a sense of belonging
- Totems are a key aspect of kinship, tying the individual to the land, and determines where they fall within the kinship system
- Kinship is also linked to the Aboriginal beliefs around ancestral beings, as well as the metaphysical connection of Aboriginal peoples to the Dreaming
1.1.2. Ceremonial Life
- There are 4 key aspects of ceremonial life:
- Rites of passage
- Social information
- Personal connections
- Spiritual connections
Ceremonial life links Aboriginal people, land and identity
Represents the presentness of the Aboriginal Dreaming
In case you don’t remember the preliminary content for this bit, the Dreaming occurs in the past, present AND future. Ceremonies serve to remind Aboriginal peoples of this.
Passes on the beliefs and practices of Aboriginal Spiritualities to younger generations
1.1.3. Obligations to Land and People
- Aboriginal identity is inextricably connected to the Land, and to their Ancestral Beings
- Rituals and ceremonies are performed on sacred sites (which are on the land), and serve as a meeting point between Aboriginal people and the Dreaming
- As a result, Aboriginal people consider themselves caretakers of the land, as it is in their best interests to maintain and preserve nature
1.2. Discuss the continuing effect of dispossession on Aboriginal spiritualities in relation to:
1.2.1. Separation from the Land
- Loss of land directly resulted in loss of spiritual identity
- Since Aboriginal spirituality is directly and inextricably connected to the Land, and to sacred sites, removing their access to the land inhibited their ability to fulfil spiritual and moral responsibilities
- As a result, Separation from the land led to the loss of Totemic identity, and the inherent destruction of the intricate kinship framework which Aboriginal culture is based on
1.2.2. Separation from kinship groups
- Compounding on separation from the land, removal from kinship groups destroyed thousands of years of tradition, relationships and culture
- Aboriginal youth were not able to learn their traditional stories and beliefs
- Since Aboriginal spritiuality is primarily oral, rather than written, the stories were lost as community Elders passed away
1.2.3 The Stolen Generations
Servant or Slave?
From the late 1800s until 1967, indigenous and so-called “half-caste” (half-European, half-indigenous) children were forcibly removed from their families under government authorization, and were trained as house- or farm-hands.
The Bringing Them Home Report2 (completed in 1997, publicly released in 2007) brought to light the impact on Aboriginal culture, such as loss of heritage, culture, language, land, and community.
While many clain that “Australia never had slavery,” this report demonstrated that Australia had higher numbers of slaves per capita than the USA at any point.
In the words of Larissa Behrendt, and Indigenous academic and writer, “People will say ‘yeah, well thats something that happened in the Southern states of America, but we didnt have that here’, but for the child who was working for nothing in someone else’s kitchen, with no other choice, cannot escape - is beaten when they don’t do their work, is abused in other ways - it’s slavery.” 3
- 7.2% of Australia is Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander
- Within this 7.2%, the suicide rate is 2.3x higher than the national average
- Over 20% of homeless Australians are Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander (despite being less than 10% of the national population)
- The life expectancy of Indigenous Australians is 20 years lower than the average Australian
1.3. Outline the importance of the following for the Land Rights Movement:
Native Title: The rights of Indigenous Australians to the land, as recognised by the High Court of Australia
1.3.1. Native Title (Timeline)
1992 - Mabo vs The State of Queensland (No 2):
- High Court declared that the Meriam people have a traditional right to posess and live on the Islands of Mer (Murray Islands)
- First successful Land Rights case
- Abolished Terra Nullius, recognising that “native title exists and is recognised by the Common Law of Australia (6:1)” (Judges Mason (Chief Justice of Australia), Brennan, Deane, Dawson, Toohey, Gaudron, & Justice McHugh)
1993 - Commonwealth Native Title Act:
- Determined the rights of Indigenous Australians to claim Native Title
- Determined which types of land Native Title could be claimed on
- Prioritised established properties (e.g. suburbs and developed land) over native title, but allowed claims on unserviced and pastoral land.
1996 - Wik People vs The State of Queensland:
Why is Queensland always getting into fights with Aboriginal people ?!?!
- Response to the Wik peoples’ Native Title claim on land which was under pastoral (mining/farming/agricultural) leases
- Outlined the conditions for Native Title, and determined that “Native Title rights and Pastoral Lease rights can coexist, but where they are inconsistent, the pastoral rights prevail (4:3)” (Majority: Toohey, Gaudron, Gummow, Justice Kirby. Dissent: Brennan (Chief Justice of Australia), Dawson, Justice McHugh)
1998 - Native Title Amendment Act
- Made changes to the Native Title Act (1993), which restricted the abilities of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to claim land under Native Title
- For example Federal land (land directly owned by the Federal Government e.g. Military Bases) could not be claimed
- Rather than negotiating with Aboriginal people, native title was reduced to consultation, meaning the pastoral owners could ignore anything the Aboriginal claimants said.
Basically undoing the last 10 years of progress in one afternoon.
1.4. Analyse the importance of the Dreaming for the Land Rights Movement:
- The main drive of the Land Rights Movement was the loss of spiritual connections to the land.
- While the Land Rights Movement is seen as a legal battle for non-Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal people see it as a spiritual reclamation, enabling them to reconnect with their traditions and beliefs.
2. Religious Expression in Australia - 1945 to the Present 4
2.1. Outline changing patterns of religious adherence from 1945 to the present using census data
- Islam - 1976: 0.3%, 2016: 2.6%
- Hinduism - 1986: 0.1%, 2016: 1.9%
- Sikhism - 1986: Less than 0.1%, 2016: 0.5%
- Buddhism - 1947: 0,01%, 2016: 2.4%
- Judaism - 1947: 0.4%, 2016: 2.4%
- Christianity - 2011: 61.1%, 2016: 52%
- No Religion - 1971: 7%, 2016: 30.1%
2.2. Account for the present religious landscape in Australia in relation to:
2.2.1. Christianity as the Major Religious Tradition
- Christianity is the major religious tradition in Australia as a result of colonialization
- The First Fleet was primarily Anglicans, with a small (but significant) number of Irish Catholics
- This is reflected in the census as a 52% national majority
- However, every time another religious group experiences a significant increase, the result is that Christianity’s percentage declines
IMMIGRANTS, WE GET THE JOB DONE
(What, you didn’t expect me to sneak in a Hamilton reference?)
- Immigration is responsible for basically all religion in Australia
- Immigration in 1945 was primarily British-assisted migrants, as well as European war refugees
- 1945-1960: Massive influx of Jewish immigrants (because of WW2)
- 1960-1975: The abolition of the White Australia policy, as well as the Viet Nam and Korean Wars led to an influx of Asian migrants, resulting in the rise of Eastern religions (such as Buddhism and Hinduism)
- 1980-present: Iraqi Civil War and the rise of Al Qaeda leads to an influx of Middle Eastern immigrants, observed as a rise in Islam in the census
2.2.3. Denominational Switching
- Pentecostals observed an increase in adherence, primarily driven by younger people
- Observed as a growth of approximately 16% over 5 years
- Most traditional churches (Orthodoxy, Protestants, Anglicans) lost popularity
- Catholicism was not drastically affected, but still experienced a decline
2.2.4. Rise of New-Age Religions
- Among the fastest growing faith groups in the 2016 census, increasing by 140% since 1996
- Differ from traditional faiths in that, while they form an overall spiritual movement, they lack any unifying creed or doctrine
- Regardless, adherents tend to share some similar beliefs and practices
- A reaction against what is seen as a failure of Christianity and other mainstream religions to satisfactorily respond to the needs of people today
- Concept of something well tried, and yet new and different
- Spread rapidly due to the support of celebrities (e.g. Scientology)
- Any movement or concept, which rejects religious belief or adherence
- 1971: first time that ‘No Religion’ category was included on census – explains rapid increase at the time
- Secular systems based on reason, fact and scientific analysis and therefore, differ from religious systems, which tend to be based on divine revelation and spiritual insight
- However, today there is less emphasis on conforming and more emphasis on the autonomy of the individual to determine what feels spiritually right to them
- Increased freedom – rise of secularism and the understanding that religion is essentially a private concern
2.3. Describe the impact on Australia’s religious landscape by:
2.3.1 Ecumenical Dialogue
- ecumenism is the communication and interaction between different denominations within Christianity, with a strong focus on promotive unity through the similarities and disregarding differences. emphasis on love and solidarity, and promoting social justice.
- prompted by the changing religious landscape particularly denominational switching, immigration, Christianity as the major tradition, and the rise of secularism.
2.3.2 Interfaith Dialogue
- dialogue occurring between different religious traditions, aiming to promote unity and understanding within the nation and positive dialogue and respect. aims to eliminate intolerance.
- prompted by immigration and the influx of new religious traditions forming in Australia post-1945. The rise of secularism and the role of Christianity as the major religious tradition in Australia.
- Judaism influx caused by WW2
- interfaith dialogue aims to resolve the conflict created through the impact of wars on communities and the separation of religious groups through persecution.
- the apology and repentance of religious traditions to the indigenous Australian community to overcome conflict and rebuild relationships that were destroyed throughout Australia’s early history.
- Aims to heal the effects of displacement and the stolen generation and reconnect the indigenous Australian and non-indigenous communities throughout Australia as a multifaith and harmonious society
- Also aims to educate those about the struggles of indigenous people and continue fighting for social progress in terms of equality and social justice.
- Was mostly prompted by dispossession, forced assimilation, and the land rights movement.
3.1. Significant Person: Moses Maimonides
It really doesn’t get more compressed than that
3.2. Ethics: Bioethics
- Pikuach Nefesh (preservation of life)
- Tzelem Elokim (made in the image of God)
- Commandments of the Torah (laws and mitzvot - positive ones to be upheld and negative ones to be refrained from)
Abortion and Euthanasia: directs Jews to not interfere, but rather preserve life
- What they will do: avoid abortion unless under specific circumstances
- Quote: “there is a time to be born and a time to die”
|Orthodox - traditional and strict||Progressive - Move with the times|
|Oppose: should preserve life||Support: if the mother’s quality of life is at jeopardy|
Surrogacy: directs Jews to conceive naturally with biological sex cells to respect G-d’s omnipotence as creator.
- What they will do: condemn surrogacy and not engage with it
- Quote: “Thou shall not commit adultery”
|Conservative - want to conserve the laws|
|Oppose: Sex cells must come biologically therefore to maintain the commandment “thou shall not commit adultery”|
Commandments of the Torah
Gene therapy: direct Jews that they are the co-custodians of creation and help preserve G-d’s creation
- What will they do: Jews may edit G-d’s creation in order to “subdue” creation for positive reasons
- Quote: “Fulfill the earth and subdue it”
|Follow a range of mitzvot||If it benefits creation|
WIP 3.3. Significant Practice: Marriage
- Marriage is a significant practice in the Jewish tradition, symbolising the union of a chatan (groom) and kallah (bride)
- NOTE: Marriage is a rite, not a ritual, as Jewish adherents are expected to be married once in their lives.
126.96.36.199. Stages of the rite
- The Jewish marriage ceremony can be split into 2 distinct components: Kiddushin (dedication) and nisuin (marriage)
- Kiddushin basically stops the chatan and kallah from trying to marry anyone else.
- In modern traditions, the Kiddushin is usually where the legal marriage contract is signed.
- After Kiddushin, a get (Jewish divorce contract) is required if the couple wishes to split
- Nisuin is the official religious marriage ritual
Nisuin can be thought of as the bit where they tell G-d that they’re married now
- Nisuin is the requirement for a marriage to be recognised by Jewish law.
- Nisuin has historically occured up to a year after Kiddushin, but nowadays, both Nisuin and Kiddushin are performed as part of one longer ceremony
- Kiddushin basically stops the chatan and kallah from trying to marry anyone else.
- “Calling up” of the groom to read the Torah
- Occurs during Shabbat 1 week before the wedding
- In progressive Jewish traditions, both the bride and groom read from the Torah
- Orthodox Jewish women visit the Mikveh pool
- Form of ritual purification before marriage
- Occurs one week before the wedding
- “Veiling of the bride”
- First time the Chatan and Kallah see each other on the wedding day
Reading of the Ketubah
The Ketubah is read aloud to those gathered
The Ketubah outlines the obligations of the groom to the bride, including food, clothing, and “marital relations”
The ketubah is considered a legally binding contract, although some countries5 do not recognise it in their legal systems
In orthodox traditions, the Ketubah is read in Aramaic, while Progressive and Modern couples may elect to have it read in their local language as well, or for a shortened version to be read.
The reading of the Ketubah marks the end of Kiddushin
- Chatan and Kallah approach the Chuppah (A canopy supported by 4 poles or attendants) with their parents after signing the Ketubah
- The Chuppah represents the new home that will be built by the couple after marriage
- Remainder of the ceremony occurs under the Chuppah
Circling of the Groom
- Kallah circles the chatan 7 times
- Symbolises the breaking down of walls between the couple
- In Progressive traditions, the groom and bride circle each other
- Initial blessings are said over wine
- Performed by rabbi or family member
- After the blessings, the Chatan and Kallah drink from the wine
Giving of the Rings
- The chatan places a ring on the finger of the kallah
- Chatan says:
“Behold you are sanctified (betrothed) to me with this ring, according to the Law of Moses and Israel.”
- “Seven Blessings”
- Formalises Nisuin
- After the blessings are read, the chatan and kallah drink from the same cup
Breaking Of The Glass
- The glass from the Sheva Berakhot is wrapped in a cloth and broken under the foot of the chatan
- Serves as a reminder that even in great times, the couple will encounter strife
3.3.2. Marriage and the beliefs of Judaism
Marriage is an expression of the beliefs of Judaism, allowing adherents to fulfil their religious obligations.
Aufruf, for example, serves as a fulfilment of the Covenant (Mitzvah 17)
The Ketubah can be seen as a reflection of the Covenant, in that it is a religious contract between the couple and G-d
Sheva Berakhot frequently reminds adherents of their belief in one god
4.1. Significant Person: John XXIII
4.1.1. Personal Context
Born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (25/Nov/1881) in Sotto il Monte, Bergamo, Lombardy, Italy
4th oldest of 13 siblings
Family worked as sharecroppers (a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops)
Recieved First Communion and Confirmation at 8
Enrolled into the Secular Franciscan Order on March 1 1896
Completed a doctorate in Canon Law and was ordained a priest in August 1904
Appointed secretary of the Bishop of Bergamo (1905)
Drafted as a sargeant and chaplain in the Regio Esercito Italiano (Royal Italian Army) during WWI
- Discharged in early 1919
Appointed Italian President of the Society for the Propogation of the Faith - 1921
Appointed Apostolic Visitor to Bulgaria - 1925
Appointed Apostolic Delegate to Turkey - 1934
Mother died 20/02/1939
Made head of the Vatican Jewish Agency in Geneva (1939)
22 December 1944 - appointed Apostolic Nuncio to France
4:30 PM - 28/10/1958 - Elected Pope with 38 votes
Took the Regnal Name John, first in over 500 years
4.1.2. External: Efforts During the Holocaust
Roncalli made various efforts during the Holocaust in World War II to save refugees, mostly Jewish people, from the Nazis. Among his efforts were:
- Delivery of “immigration certificates” to Palestine through the Nunciature diplomatic courier.
- Rescue of Jews by means of certificates of “baptism of convenience” sent by Monsignor Roncalli to priests in Europe.
- Children managed to leave Slovakia due to his interventions.
- Jewish refugees whose names were included on a list submitted by Rabbi Markus of Istanbul to Nuncio Roncalli.
- Jews held at Jasenovac concentration camp, near Stara Gradiška, were liberated as a result of his intervention.
- Bulgarian Jews who left Bulgaria, a result of his request to King Boris III of Bulgaria.
- Romanian Jews from Transnistria left Romania as a result of his intervention.
- Italian Jews helped by the Vatican as a result of his interventions.
- Orphaned children of Transnistria on board a refugee ship that weighed anchor from Constanța to Istanbul, and later arriving in Palestine as a result of his interventions.
- Jews held at the Sereď concentration camp who were spared from being deported to German death camps as a result of his intervention.
- Hungarian Jews who saved themselves through their conversions to Christianity through the baptismal certificates sent by Nuncio Roncalli to the Hungarian Nuncio, Monsignor Angelo Rota.
4.1.3 Vatican II
The second Vatican Council was founded in 1962, and took place in the Vatican City
It was ended in 1965 by Pope Paul VI
The council picked up on the work of the first Vatican Council, which was interrupted by the Franco-German war
The council dealt with issues of:
- Interfaith dialogue, especially in the aftermath of the anti-Semitic movement during the Second World War
- Adaptation of the Church to be applicable to modern society
- Globalisation of the Church: as Catholicism spread, a lower percentage of Catholics spoke Romance languages (French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan and Romanian)
- this is why Latin is no longer used in general mass)
Purpose was not to make new laws, but instead redefined principles in education, the media, etc.
Included over 22000 bishops from 160 countries
Vatican 2 was ecumenical: included protestant and orthodox leaders to reunify Christianity
The media was allowed to observe the council (first time ever), showing the internal discord of the church
4.1.4. Contribution of Pope John XXIII through Vatican 2
Liturgies were no longer required to be in Latin
Lay-people were participants rather than observers
For example, sections of the Mass were converted to a call-and-response structure, such as:
- Mystery of the Faith,
- the Nicence Creed,
- Sign of Peace
- Nostra aetate: “In our time, when day by day mankind is being drawn closer together, and the ties between different peoples are becoming stronger”
- The Catholic Church rejects nothing that is true and holy in these religions” (Judaism and Islam)
- Unitatis redintegratio: calls for the reunion of Christendom
- Anyone who has been baptised is Christian, “and so are correctly accepted as brothers by the children of the Catholic Church”
- December 4 1963
- Pope Paul VI
- Aimed to achieve greater lay participation in the Catholic Church’s liturgy
- Pope Paul VI
- 21 november 1964
- Aim: “The restoration of unity among all Christians”
Differences between old mass and new:
- No singing in old mass
- Only 1 altarperson
- Call & response is between the altar person and the priest
- Congregation is virtually silent
- Mass is in Latin
- Modern mass is facing the people
- Communion is received in mouth, while kneeling
4.1.6. Interfaith Dialogue
Decretum de Judaeis (Decree on the Jews)
- Jewish people were to be considered guardians of the Old Testament and the prophets of Jesus
- The Bible states that the Jewish were God’s favoured people, and that Jesus was Jewish
- The Good Friday prayers declaring Jewish people to be “perfidious” (deceitful)
- The concept that “the Jews” were responsible for the death of Christ was declared incorrect, since most early Christians still considered themselves Jewish, and Christ was Jewish as well
- “The bulk of Jews should be acquitted of any formal guilt because they followed their leaders out of ignorance.” Cardinal Meyer
- Bible reference: “Now, fellow Israelites, I know that you acted in ignorance, as did your leaders.” Acts 3:17
Apostolistic Delegate in Hungary
- Roncalli forwarded a request for the Vatican to inquire whether other neutral countries could grant asylum to Jews, to inform the German government that the Palestine Jewish Agency had 5,000 immigration certificates available and to ask Vatican Radio to broadcast that helping Jews was an act of mercy approved by the Church.
- In 1944, Roncalli used diplomatic couriers, papal representatives and the Sisters of Our Lady of Zion to transport and issue baptismal certificates, immigration certificates and visas, many of them forged, to Hungarian Jews.
188.8.131.52 Anti-Semitism and Christian-Jewish Relations
John XXIII made an official statement that Jews collectively were not responsible for the death of Jesus
“The Jews should not be presented as rejected or accursed by God, as if this followed from the Holy Scriptures” - Nostra Aetate
Prior to Vatican 2, anti-semitic themes existed within Christianity, which meant that Jewish people were held responsible for the death of Jesus
However, after John XXIII inspired Vatican 2, and after Pope Paul VI published Nostra Aetate, it was claimed that “the Jews should not be presented as rejected or accursed by God, as if this followed from the Holy Scriptures”
This broke down barriers between Christians and Jewish people, and enabled interfaith dialogue between the two religions
Representatives of Orthodox and Protestantism were invited to the Vatican Council
Invited members of all faiths to his Pentecost homily in 1944 at the Apostolic Delegate to Turkey
“To believe in Christ means to desire unity; to desire unity means to desire the Church; to desire the Church means to desire the communion of grace which corresponds to the Father’s plan from all eternity. Such is the meaning of Christ’s prayer: Ut unum sint.”
- An encyclical is a written document issued by the Pope to all archbishops, bishops, patriarchs and primates of the Roman Catholic Church
- Encyclicals are translated and distributed to individual churches and laypeople by local bishops
- Encyclicals are used to address contextual issues, such as social movements and wars
- Encyclicals are the second-highest ranking document issued by popes (Apostolic Constitutions are the only level higher)
184.108.40.206. Pacem In Terris
- “Peace on Earth” (Latin)
- Issued by Pope John XXIII on 11/04/1963
- Focused on the rights of individuals and the state, as well as international relations
- Emphasised human dignity and equality
- Mentioned issues such as Womens’ rights, Nuclear Non-Proliferation, and the United Nations, all 3 of which were endorsed
220.127.116.11. Mater Et Magistra
- “Mother and Teacher” (Latin)
- Issued by Pope John XXIII on 15/05/1961
- Focused on “the increasing development of social issues in the light of the Christian doctrine,” and the Church’s role as the “mother and teacher” of humanity
UPCOMING: 4.2. Ethics: Bioethics
4.3. Significant Practice: Baptism
- Christian rite of initiation through water which cleanses adherents soul of original sin, initiates them into the church and christian life, allows them to gain salvation.
- Completed for both adult and infant, depending on the variants. For example, the Roman catholic church performs the process of baptism on infants, rather than adults.
- The water is important as it purifies the candidates soul of sin and is used through three ways; immersion, Affusion and Aspersion
4.3.1. Impact on individual:
- Closer connection and relationship with God as their ‘sins will be forgiven” act 6:4-5
- With God’s presence and blessing, the candidate commits to a life with god and to the church.
4.3.2. Impact on community:
- Gather to witness and experience the baptism
- Unite as a community to support the newly baptised.
- Strengthens their community as well as their bond with God.
- “For we were all baptized by one Spirit so as to form one body – whether Jews or Gentiles, slave or free – and we were all given the one Spirit to drink.” – 1 Corinthians 12:13
- “So he ordered that they be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ. Then they asked Peter to stay with them for a few days.” – Acts 10:48
- “Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved, but whoever does not believe will be condemned.” – Mark 16:16
- “Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age.”
- “Baptism is an outward expression of an inward faith.” – Watchman Nee
- “In order to live a life of holiness, we must first receive new life from God – we must be born from above.” – J. Vernon McDee
- “Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? We were buried therefore with him by baptism into death, in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might walk in newness of life.” – Romans 6: 3-4
- “God’s people should be baptized because God commanded it, not because some church requires it.” – John R. Rice
- “For by grace you have been saved through faith; and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God; not as a result of works, so that no one may boast.” – Ephesians 2: 8-9
Maldives, Mauritania, Somalia, Tunisia, Afghanistan, Iran, Yemen, Western Sahara, Algeria, Morocco, Comoros, Niger, Saudi Arabia, Tajikistan, Palestine, Jordan, Djibouti, Libya, Mayotte, Sudan, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Senegal, Gambia, Iraq, Kosovo, Mali, Turkmenistan, Bangladesh, Egypt, Turkey, Guinea, Uzbekistan, Indonesia, Oman, Kyrgyzstan, Brunei, Sierra Leone, Qatar, UAE, Kuwait, Bahrain, Kazahkstan, Syria, Burkina Faso, Malaysia, Albania, Chad, Lebanon, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Cote d’Ivore, Eritrea, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Malawi, Kenya, India, Uganda, Suriname and Russia do not accept Ketubah as legally binding under any circumstances. Israel is the only country where every part of the Ketubah is considered legally binding. ↩︎