Definitions Chromosome: Structure in the nucleus of a cell, composed of DNA DNA: A double helix structure made of nucleotides Deoxyribose sugar: one of the three nucleotides of DNA Gene: a section of DNA that carries the code for a particular characteristic Nitrogenous base: part of a nucleotide, four types: ademine, thymine, guanine and cytocine Nucleotide: the building blocks of DNA, composed of a Deoxyribose sugar, Nitrogenous base and phosphate Phosphate: one of the components of a nucleotide Trait: a characteristic inherited by an organism Autosome: all chromosomes other than sex chromosomes Centromere: point where the two chromatids join together Chromatid: one of the strands of a chromosome following replication Diploid Number: number of chromosomes in the cell of an organism, represented as \(2N\).

Definitions Ion: An atom which is electrostatically charged Cation: Positively Charged ion Anion: Negatively Charged ion Valence shell: Outermost electron shell Octet: 8 electrons in the valence shell (2 if the element is Hydrogen or Helium) Catalyst: something that causes and/or speeds up chemical reactions Proton: positively charged hadron Neutron: neutral hadron Electron: negatively charged lepton exothermic: emits heat endothermic: absorbs heat Atomic number: number of protons Atomic mass: number of protons + number of neutrons Neutralisation: mixing an acid and a base to create water Corrosion: a gas or liquid chemically attacking an exposed surface Combustion: exothermic reaction between a fuel and oxidiser, which produces heat, light and gaseous products decomposition: when a single compound breaks down into two or more compounds oxidisation: corrosion reaction where the gas/liquid is Oxygen (O) Precipitation: formation of an insoluble solid when two soluble solutions are combined (product is known as a precipitate) Acid-Metal reaction: when an acid and metal react to produce a metallic salt and Hydrogen Periodic Table The periodic table is a table listing the fundamental building blocks of the universe: elements NOTE: ATOM and ELEMENT do NOT mean the same thing!

Average Speed: distance travelled per unit of time (m/s) Velocity: displacement per unit of time (m/s) Average Speed is SCALAR, while velocity is a VECTOR Distance-Speed-Time Triangles Usage: Average Speed \(=\) Distance \(\div\) Time Distance \(=\) Average Speed \(\times\) Time Time \(=\) Distance \(\div\) Average Speed Acceleration Acceleration is the rate at which an object’s velocity CHANGES Acceleration is measured in \(m/s^2\) (metres per second squared) Acceleration can be found by dividing the applied force by the mass of the object \(a = F/m\) Acceleration is a VECTOR quantity.

Distance: the measurement of the length between two points Displacement: the CHANGE in an object’s position (straight line between start and end points) NOTE: An object can travel a large distance and still have zero displacement Distance is SCALAR (e.

Definition A function is a relation between two sets of data where each input has 1 or less potential outputs Horizontal Lines, Parabolas, Linear Equations, Hyperbolas, Exponentials, Polynomials and Cubic Graphs are all examples of functions Circles and Vertical Lines are NOT functions In other words, functions can be one-to-one or many-to-one relationships, but not one-to-many relationships (In reference to input and output values) Notation There are 3 methods of expressing functions: \(y=123\) \(f(x)=123\) \(f:x→123\) All of the above methods say the same thing: When \(x\) is the input, \(123\) is the output For example: \(y=2x\) \(f(x)=2x\) \(f:x→2x\) All state that when \(x\) is the input, \(2x\) is the output Vertical Line Test The vertical line test is a quick way to test if a graph is a function If a vertical line can cut the function TWICE OR MORE, the graph is not a function In the graph below, the red graph is a function, but the blue line is not, because the green vertical line cuts the blue line at 2 points Set Notation In set notation, different types of brackets have different meanings: “(” and “)” are used to write a set where the boundaries are EXCLUDED “[” and “]” are used to write a set where the boundaries are INCLUDED \(\infty\) means Infinity while \(- \infty\) means Negative Infinity \(x\in[1,\infty)\) means that “\(x\) is in the set of all numbers between 1 and infinity” Domain And Range All functions have a Domain and Range The domain of a function is all the valid input values The range of a function is all the valid output values Some input values are INVALID and therefore not part of the Domain For Example: In \(g(x)=\sqrt{x}\), only positive values of \(x\) are possible (because negative numbers have no graphable roots) Therefore, \(x\) must be greater than or equal to zero (0) This can be expressed as \(x \geq 0\) OR \(x\in(0,\infty)\) Some output values are INVALID and therefore not part of the Range y-asymptotes are not part of the range All y values above/below the minimum/maximum y of a graph are not part of the range Transformations of a Function (from \(f(x)\)) Vertical Translation Up \(c\) units: \(f(x)+c\) Vertical Translation Down \(c\) units: \(f(x)-c\) Horizontal Translation Left \(c\) units: \(f(x+c)\) Horizontal Translation Right \(c\) units: \(f(x-c)\) Odd and Even functions Even Functions: Symmetrical about the y-axis Rules: \(f(-x)=f(x)\) If \((x,y)\) is a valid solution to \(f(x)\), \((x,-y)\) is in the same function Odd Functions: Symmetrical about the origin \((0,0)\) Rules: \(f(-x)=-f(x)\) If \((x,y)\) is a valid solution to \(f(x)\), then \((-x,-y)\) is also a valid solution Proving/Solving Odd and Even Functions: Find \(f(-x)\) Simplify \(f(-x)\) If \(f(-x) = -f(x)\), the function is ODD If \(f(-x) = f(x)\), the function is EVEN If \(f(-x) \neq f(x)\) AND \(f(-x) \neq -f(x)\), the function is NEITHER ODD NOR EVEN

What is an STI? An STI is an infection or disease that is transmitted through sexual contact Common STI’s include: Chlamydia Genital Herpes Genital Warts Gonorrhoea Hepatitis HIV/AIDS Syphilis Trends of STI’s in Australia Chlamydia is one of the most common Sexually Transmitted Infections in Australia HIV is also quite common in Australia Hepatitis B is also frequent, but is most commonly transmitted through blood.

Straight Line Graphs Standard Form: \(y = mx + b\) Features of a Straight Line Graph X-intercept: substitute \(y=0\) Y-intercept: value of \(b\) Transformations of a Straight Line Graph Vertical Translation Up: increase \(b\) Vertical Translation Down: decrease \(b\) Increase steepness: increase \(m\) Decrease steepness: decrease \(m\) Reflect in y-axis: \(m \times -1\) Reflect in x-axis: \(y \times -1\) AND \(m \times -1\) Reflect in Main Diagonal \((y=x)\): switch y and x Horizontal Translation Left: increase \(b\) Horizontal Translation Right: decrease \(b\) Lines Parallel to the Axis Standard Form (parallel to x-axis): \(y=b\) Standard Form (Parallel to y-axis): \(x=a\) Transformations of Lines Parallel to the Axis Vertical translation up: Increase \(b\) Vertical Translation Down: Decrease \(b\) Horizontal Translation Left: Decrease \(a\) Horizontal Translation Right: Increase \(a\) Parabolas General Form: \(y=ax^2 + bx + c\) Features of a Parabola X-Intercepts (not always present): intersects of parabola and \(y=0\) Y-Intercept: intersects of parabola \(x=0\).

Cloning A clone is an organism that was made by exactly copying the genetic sequence of another organism. Cloning occurs in nature. Examples of natural cloning include mitosis and banana plants.

DNA DNA stands for DeoxyriboNucleic Acid DNA has the shape of a double helix (like a twisted ladder) The DNA molecule is made up of repeating components called NUCLEOTIDES Nucleotides consist of three components: A Sugar A Phosphate One of 4 Nitrogenous Bases: Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Guanine (G) Cytosine (C) NOTE: You only need to know the letters, not the full names Adenine can only pair with Thymine, while Guanine can only pair with Cytosine Nitrogenous bases pair through Hydrogen bonds DNA contains all the instructions to create an organism Key term: POLYPEPTIDE, also known as a protein DNA is read in groups of three, called a CODON or a triplet Mutations A MUTATION is the alteration of the nucleotide sequence in the genome of an organism A MUTAGEN is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material of an organism, increasing the frequency of mutations in an organism Most mutations are harmless (NEUTRAL) Mutations that improve survivability are called BENEFICIAL mutations Mutations that decrease survivability are called DETRIMENTAL mutations Examples of mutations Beneficial:

Fossils A fossil is evidence of past life. Fossils can be part of an organism, such as its bones, teeth, feathers, scales, branches or leaves. Fossils can also be traces, such as footprints, burrows and other evidence that an organism existed in an area.