Judaism Depth Study for SOR.

Depth Study: Judaism

Judaism Depth Study for Studies of Religion

SOR1 - The Development of Early Christian Communities

Pentecost Fifty days after the resurrection of Christ Descent of the Holy Spirit Symbolised the Birth of the Church The Jesus Movement 30-60 AD Period immediately after the death of Jesus Early Christians saw themselves as a sect of Judaism, not an independent religion believed that they were living in the last days before the Parousia (second coming of Christ) No proper governing body to determine which Jewish practices should be adhered to Persecuted by both Jews and Romans, who saw them as heretics The titles given by Christians to Jesus (such as Lord) were reserved for Caesarea (Emperors’ family, rulers) The Leaders Small groups of Palestinian Jews followed disciples such as Peter in and around Palestine Larger groups of Diaspora Jews (Jews that were not in Israel/Palestine) and Gentiles (Non-Jews) responded to the teachings of Paul Peter was the first Pope Paul created the structure of the Christian Church The Council Of Jerusalem - 50 AD Purpose was to remove the differences within the early Church Removed the requirement for circumcision, amongst other changes New Testament Period - 45-100 AD Gradual formation and centralization of Christian Churches Establishing independence from Judaism Caused by the delay of the Parousia and the deaths of the Apostles Emperor NERO and the Great Fire - 64 AD Christians were blamed for a fire that burned down a large portion of Rome Triggered a mass persecution of Christians, who were already hated for their non-conformity and intolerance of other religions Resulted in the deaths of Paul and Peter Emperor DIOCLETIAN Augustus and the Last Persecution - 303 AD The last of the Ten Persecutions of the Early Church Ended with the reign of Emperor CONSTANTINE, who established Christianity as the religion of the Empire In 302 AD, Roman rulers declared an edict to destroy churches, burn scripture and enslave those who persevered in following Christianity To tear down the churches to the foundations and to destroy the Sacred Scriptures by fire; and commanding also that those who were in honorable stations should be degraded if they persevered in their adherence to Christianity - Followed by 2 more edicts declaring that Christian leaders should be tortured until they gave up their faith ## Emperor CONSTANTINE and the Edict of Milan - 312 AD - Emperor CONSTANTINE declared tolerance for Christianity throughout the Roman Empire - Ordered land from churches to be returned to Christians ## Council of Nicea - 352 AD - Called by Emperor Constantine to restore religious peace - Pope Sylvester and several bishops attended - Purpose was to sort out theological differences between Christian groups, such as the divine status of Christ - Resulted in the creation of the Nicene Creed - Council of Chalcedeon (451 AD) clarified that Jesus was both fully God and fully Man

SOR1 - Core Ethical Teachings of Judaism

Commandment to study the Torah The ethical and moral teachings of Judaism are grounded in the Torah, the rule of life. To learn Torah and to teach it (Deuteronomy 6:7) Halachah Halachah is the legal component of Judaism It is concerned with guiding adherents with right relationship with G-d and others It helps to elaborate on the essence of Jewish ethical living The basis for Halachah is grounded in the commandments of the Torah (613 mitzvot), and are expanded/clarified in The Talmud Mitzvot The fundamental source of ethical guidance for Jews is the Torah, which includes the Written and Oral Torah (Talmud).

SOR1 - Sacred Texts of Judaism

TaNaKh Consists of 21 books Some sources originate from nearly 2000 years ago Three Major Books: Torah (Teachings) Neviim (Prophets) Ketuvim (Writings) Originally written in Hebrew Themes: crisis and exile, alienation and reconciliation Torah (Teachings) First five books of the TaNaKh Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Received by Moses on Mount Sinai Sometimes referred to as The Law Contains the Covenant between G-d and man Nevi’im (Prophets) 8 books Joshua Judges Samuel Kings Isaiah Jeremiah Ezekiel 12 Minor Prophets Ketuvim (Writings) 11 Books Psalms Job Proverbs Ruth Song of Songs Ecclesiastes Lamentations Esther Daniel Ezra-Nehemiah Chronicles Believed to have been written under Divine Inspiration Talmud A legal commentary on the TaNaKh, explaining how its commandments are to be lived out Consists of two books Mishnah Gemara The Mishnah is the Oral Law.

SOR1 - Principle Beliefs of Judaism

Belief in One God One God who is the Creator and Ruler of the Universe Most fundamental Jewish belief God is known as YHWH (Yahweh) This belief forms the center of the Shema Prayer: “Hear O Israel, God is Our God, God the One and Only” (Deuteronomy 6:4) G-d is both Transcendent and Immanent: Transcendent: G-d is intangible/not of physical form Immanent: G-d interacts with people’s lives through the Covenant G-d is Omnipresent, Omnipotent and Omniscient (G-d is everywhere, knows everything and is all-powerful) G-d is referred to as Anthropomorphic in the TaNaKh.