Module 7: Infectious Diseases

Module 7 Notes

Module 8: Non-Infectious Diseases and Disorders

All HSC Content for Biology

RESOURCE: Excel Biology Flash Cards

Revision cards from Excel.

RESOURCE: NESA Practice Questions

Practice Question compilation by NESA.

RESOURCE: Vocabulary List

Vocabulary list for preliminary and HSC biology.

RESOURCE: Vocabulary List

Vocabulary list for preliminary and HSC biology.

Science - Biology Year 10

Definitions Chromosome: Structure in the nucleus of a cell, composed of DNA DNA: A double helix structure made of nucleotides Deoxyribose sugar: one of the three nucleotides of DNA Gene: a section of DNA that carries the code for a particular characteristic Nitrogenous base: part of a nucleotide, four types: ademine, thymine, guanine and cytocine Nucleotide: the building blocks of DNA, composed of a Deoxyribose sugar, Nitrogenous base and phosphate Phosphate: one of the components of a nucleotide Trait: a characteristic inherited by an organism Autosome: all chromosomes other than sex chromosomes Centromere: point where the two chromatids join together Chromatid: one of the strands of a chromosome following replication Diploid Number: number of chromosomes in the cell of an organism, represented as \(2N\).

Science - Cloning

Cloning A clone is an organism that was made by exactly copying the genetic sequence of another organism. Cloning occurs in nature. Examples of natural cloning include mitosis and banana plants.

Science - Mutations

DNA DNA stands for DeoxyriboNucleic Acid DNA has the shape of a double helix (like a twisted ladder) The DNA molecule is made up of repeating components called NUCLEOTIDES Nucleotides consist of three components: A Sugar A Phosphate One of 4 Nitrogenous Bases: Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Guanine (G) Cytosine (C) NOTE: You only need to know the letters, not the full names Adenine can only pair with Thymine, while Guanine can only pair with Cytosine Nitrogenous bases pair through Hydrogen bonds DNA contains all the instructions to create an organism Key term: POLYPEPTIDE, also known as a protein DNA is read in groups of three, called a CODON or a triplet Mutations A MUTATION is the alteration of the nucleotide sequence in the genome of an organism A MUTAGEN is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material of an organism, increasing the frequency of mutations in an organism Most mutations are harmless (NEUTRAL) Mutations that improve survivability are called BENEFICIAL mutations Mutations that decrease survivability are called DETRIMENTAL mutations Examples of mutations Beneficial:

Science - Fossils

Fossils A fossil is evidence of past life. Fossils can be part of an organism, such as its bones, teeth, feathers, scales, branches or leaves. Fossils can also be traces, such as footprints, burrows and other evidence that an organism existed in an area.