Significant Person: John XXIII
Born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (25/Nov/1881) in Sotto il Monte, Bergamo, Lombardy, Italy
4th oldest of 13 siblings
Family worked as sharecroppers (a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops)
Recieved First Communion and Confirmation at 8
Enrolled into the Secular Franciscan Order on March 1 1896
Completed a doctorate in Canon Law and was ordained a priest in August 1904
Appointed secretary of the Bishop of Bergamo (1905)
Drafted as a sargeant and chaplain in the Regio Esercito Italiano (Royal Italian Army) during WWI
- Discharged in early 1919
Appointed Italian President of the Society for the Propogation of the Faith - 1921
Appointed Apostolic Visitor to Bulgaria - 1925
Appointed Apostolic Delegate to Turkey - 1934
Mother died 20/02/1939
Made head of the Vatican Jewish Agency in Geneva (1939)
22 December 1944 - appointed Apostolic Nuncio to France
4:30 PM - 28/10/1958 - Elected Pope with 38 votes
Took the Regnal Name John, first in over 500 years
External: Efforts During the Holocaust
Roncalli made various efforts during the Holocaust in World War II to save refugees, mostly Jewish people, from the Nazis. Among his efforts were:
- Delivery of “immigration certificates” to Palestine through the Nunciature diplomatic courier.
- Rescue of Jews by means of certificates of “baptism of convenience” sent by Monsignor Roncalli to priests in Europe.
- Children managed to leave Slovakia due to his interventions.
- Jewish refugees whose names were included on a list submitted by Rabbi Markus of Istanbul to Nuncio Roncalli.
- Jews held at Jasenovac concentration camp, near Stara Gradiška, were liberated as a result of his intervention.
- Bulgarian Jews who left Bulgaria, a result of his request to King Boris III of Bulgaria.
- Romanian Jews from Transnistria left Romania as a result of his intervention.
- Italian Jews helped by the Vatican as a result of his interventions.
- Orphaned children of Transnistria on board a refugee ship that weighed anchor from Constanța to Istanbul, and later arriving in Palestine as a result of his interventions.
- Jews held at the Sereď concentration camp who were spared from being deported to German death camps as a result of his intervention.
- Hungarian Jews who saved themselves through their conversions to Christianity through the baptismal certificates sent by Nuncio Roncalli to the Hungarian Nuncio, Monsignor Angelo Rota.
The second Vatican Council was founded in 1962, and took place in the Vatican City
It was ended in 1965 by Pope Paul VI
The council picked up on the work of the first Vatican Council, which was interrupted by the Franco-German war
The council dealt with issues of:
- Interfaith dialogue, especially in the aftermath of the anti-Semitic movement during the Second World War
- Adaptation of the Church to be applicable to modern society
- Globalisation of the Church: as Catholicism spread, a lower percentage of Catholics spoke Romance languages (French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan and Romanian)
- this is why Latin is no longer used in general mass)
Purpose was not to make new laws, but instead redefined principles in education, the media, etc.
Included over 22000 bishops from 160 countries
Vatican 2 was ecumenical: included protestant and orthodox leaders to reunify Christianity
The media was allowed to observe the council (first time ever), showing the internal discord of the church
Contribution of Pope John XXIII through Vatican 2
Liturgies were no longer required to be in Latin
Lay-people were participants rather than observers
For example, sections of the Mass were converted to a call-and-response structure, such as:
- Mystery of the Faith,
- the Nicence Creed,
- Sign of Peace
- Nostra aetate: “In our time, when day by day mankind is being drawn closer together, and the ties between different peoples are becoming stronger”
- The Catholic Church rejects nothing that is true and holy in these religions” (Judaism and Islam)
- Unitatis redintegratio: calls for the reunion of Christendom
- Anyone who has been baptised is Christian, “and so are correctly accepted as brothers by the children of the Catholic Church”
- December 4 1963
- Pope Paul VI
- Aimed to achieve greater lay participation in the Catholic Church’s liturgy
- Pope Paul VI
- 21 november 1964
- Aim: “The restoration of unity among all Christians”
Differences between old mass and new:
- No singing in old mass
- Only 1 altarperson
- Call & response is between the altar person and the priest
- Congregation is virtually silent
- Mass is in Latin
- Modern mass is facing the people
- Communion is received in mouth, while kneeling
Decretum de Judaeis (Decree on the Jews)
- Jewish people were to be considered guardians of the Old Testament and the prophets of Jesus
- The Bible states that the Jewish were God’s favoured people, and that Jesus was Jewish
- The Good Friday prayers declaring Jewish people to be “perfidious” (deceitful)
- The concept that “the Jews” were responsible for the death of Christ was declared incorrect, since most early Christians still considered themselves Jewish, and Christ was Jewish as well
- “The bulk of Jews should be acquitted of any formal guilt because they followed their leaders out of ignorance.” Cardinal Meyer
- Bible reference: “Now, fellow Israelites, I know that you acted in ignorance, as did your leaders.” Acts 3:17
Apostolistic Delegate in Hungary
- Roncalli forwarded a request for the Vatican to inquire whether other neutral countries could grant asylum to Jews, to inform the German government that the Palestine Jewish Agency had 5,000 immigration certificates available and to ask Vatican Radio to broadcast that helping Jews was an act of mercy approved by the Church.
- In 1944, Roncalli used diplomatic couriers, papal representatives and the Sisters of Our Lady of Zion to transport and issue baptismal certificates, immigration certificates and visas, many of them forged, to Hungarian Jews.
Anti-Semitism and Christian-Jewish Relations
John XXIII made an official statement that Jews collectively were not responsible for the death of Jesus
“The Jews should not be presented as rejected or accursed by God, as if this followed from the Holy Scriptures” - Nostra Aetate
Prior to Vatican 2, anti-semitic themes existed within Christianity, which meant that Jewish people were held responsible for the death of Jesus
However, after John XXIII inspired Vatican 2, and after Pope Paul VI published Nostra Aetate, it was claimed that “the Jews should not be presented as rejected or accursed by God, as if this followed from the Holy Scriptures”
This broke down barriers between Christians and Jewish people, and enabled interfaith dialogue between the two religions
Representatives of Orthodox and Protestantism were invited to the Vatican Council
Invited members of all faiths to his Pentecost homily in 1944 at the Apostolic Delegate to Turkey
“To believe in Christ means to desire unity; to desire unity means to desire the Church; to desire the Church means to desire the communion of grace which corresponds to the Father’s plan from all eternity. Such is the meaning of Christ’s prayer: Ut unum sint.”
- An encyclical is a written document issued by the Pope to all archbishops, bishops, patriarchs and primates of the Roman Catholic Church
- Encyclicals are translated and distributed to individual churches and laypeople by local bishops
- Encyclicals are used to address contextual issues, such as social movements and wars
- Encyclicals are the second-highest ranking document issued by popes (Apostolic Constitutions are the only level higher)
Pacem In Terris
- “Peace on Earth” (Latin)
- Issued by Pope John XXIII on 11/04/1963
- Focused on the rights of individuals and the state, as well as international relations
- Emphasised human dignity and equality
- Mentioned issues such as Womens’ rights, Nuclear Non-Proliferation, and the United Nations, all 3 of which were endorsed
Mater Et Magistra
- “Mother and Teacher” (Latin)
- Issued by Pope John XXIII on 15/05/1961
- Focused on “the increasing development of social issues in the light of the Christian doctrine,” and the Church’s role as the “mother and teacher” of humanity
UPCOMING: Ethics: Bioethics
Significant Practice: Baptism
- Christian rite of initiation through water which cleanses adherents soul of original sin, initiates them into the church and christian life, allows them to gain salvation.
- Completed for both adult and infant, depending on the variants. For example, the Roman catholic church performs the process of baptism on infants, rather than adults.
- The water is important as it purifies the candidates soul of sin and is used through three ways; immersion, Affusion and Aspersion
Impact on individual
- Closer connection and relationship with God as their ‘sins will be forgiven” act 6:4-5
- With God’s presence and blessing, the candidate commits to a life with god and to the church.
Impact on community
- Gather to witness and experience the baptism
- Unite as a community to support the newly baptised.
- Strengthens their community as well as their bond with God.
- “For we were all baptized by one Spirit so as to form one body – whether Jews or Gentiles, slave or free – and we were all given the one Spirit to drink.” – 1 Corinthians 12:13
- “So he ordered that they be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ. Then they asked Peter to stay with them for a few days.” – Acts 10:48
- “Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved, but whoever does not believe will be condemned.” – Mark 16:16
- “Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age.”
- “Baptism is an outward expression of an inward faith.” – Watchman Nee
- “In order to live a life of holiness, we must first receive new life from God – we must be born from above.” – J. Vernon McDee
- “Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? We were buried therefore with him by baptism into death, in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might walk in newness of life.” – Romans 6: 3-4
- “God’s people should be baptized because God commanded it, not because some church requires it.” – John R. Rice
- “For by grace you have been saved through faith; and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God; not as a result of works, so that no one may boast.” – Ephesians 2: 8-9